Hungary is a unitary state nation divided into 19 counties (megye). The counties and the capital are the 20 NUTS third-level units of Hungary. La Hongrie fut le premier pays d'Europe à enregistrer pour la première fois une chute de la natalité sous le seuil des 2,1 enfants par femme, nécessaire à l'époque pour assurer le simple remplacement des générations. Despite some early successes,[97] the Hungarian government began seeking a secret peace pact with the Allies after the Second Army suffered catastrophic losses at the River Don in January 1943. [59] His first-born son, Saint Stephen I, became the first King of Hungary after defeating his pagan uncle Koppány, who also claimed the throne. According to the 2011 census, 9,896,333 people (99.6%) speak Hungarian in Hungary, of whom 9,827,875 people (99%) speak it as a first language, while 68,458 people (0.7%) speak it as a second language. [13] With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union. The first book printed in Hungary was the Chronica Hungarorum. En particulier, les demographes et historiens francais sont longtemps restes presque depourvus de connaissances sur l'evolution de la pensee en Hongrie, dans ce domaine. Statistiques de la Hongrie. [185], Hungary maintains its own currency, the Hungarian forint (HUF), although the economy fulfills the Maastricht criteria with the exception of public debt, but it is also significantly below the EU average with the level of 75.3% in 2015. [222], Hungary is one of the main destinations of medical tourism in Europe, particularly in dental tourism,[223][224] in which its share is 42% in Europe and 21% worldwide. József Antall became the first democratically elected Prime Minister since World War II. [40][41], Hungary's cultural, historical, and academic prominence classify it as a middle power in global affairs. The local authorities of these towns have extended powers, but these towns belong to the territory of the respective district instead of being independent territorial units. Motorway sections are being added to the existing network, which already connects many major economically important cities to the capital. La population de la Hongrie en 1910 Paul Meuriot. For other uses, see, Current Structure of the National Assembly of Hungary, From the 18th century to World War I (1699-1918). Compare this to the natural background rate of one extinction per million species per year, and you can see why scientists refer to it as a crisis unparalleled in human history. [205], Hungary recognizes two sizable minority groups, designated as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries in Hungary: a German community of about 130,000 that lives throughout the country, and a Romani minority numerous around 300,000 that mainly resides in the northern part of the country. The post-golden age decades saw a gradually weakening Hungary, though recently there is renewal in all aspects. [145], Following a decade of Fidesz-KDNP rule lead by Viktor Orbán, Freedom House's Nations in Transit 2020 report reclassified Hungary from a democracy to a transitional or hybrid regime. The famous Hungarian hot river fish soup called Fisherman's soup or halászlé is usually a rich mixture of several kinds of poached fish. Around this time, Hungary began to become a powerful kingdom. [199] As a result, its population has been gradually declining and rapidly aging. Szijjártó alleged that the vote was fraudulent because abstentions were not counted which made it easier to reach the two-thirds majority required to pass the vote. The second element eri, 'man, men, lineage', survives in Hungarian férj 'husband', and is cognate with Mari erge 'son', Finnish archaic yrkä 'young man'.[51]. The Hungarian forces (Honvédség) defeated Austrian armies. Hungarian historiography identifies the foundation of the Hungarian state with Stephen I's baptism and coronation with the Holy Crown in A.D. 1000. The Kékes at 1,014 m or 3,327 ft is the tallest mountain in Hungary and is found here. Other renowned composers are Dohnányi, Franz Schmidt, Zoltán Kodály, Gabriel von Wayditch, Rudolf Wagner-Régeny, László Lajtha, Franz Lehár, Imre Kálmán, Sándor Veress and Rózsa. For the first time in Hungarian football's history, they hosted the 2010 UEFA Futsal Championship in Budapest and Debrecen, the first time the MLSZ staged a UEFA finals tournament. Nagyszombat University was founded in 1635 and moved to Buda in 1777 and it is called Eötvös Loránd University today. Hungary has a temperate seasonal climate,[139][140] with generally warm summers with low overall humidity levels but frequent rainshowers and cold snowy winters. During the Socialist and the Warsaw Pact era (1947–1989), the entire 200,000 strong Southern Group of Forces was garrisoned in Hungary, complete with artillery, tank regiments, air force and missile troops with nuclear weapons. There are sizable populations of Hungarian speakers in Romania, the Czech and Slovak Republics, the former Yugoslavia, Ukraine, Israel, and the U.S. [79] The constrained Habsburg Counter-Reformation efforts in the 17th century reconverted the majority of the kingdom to Catholicism. Actuelle de la population, les naissances et les décès aujourd'hui et au cours de l'année, la migration nette et la croissance démographique. It was in the beginning of the 18th-century that the present style of Hungarian folk art took shape, incorporating both Renaissance and Baroque elements, depending on the area, as well as Persian Sassanide influences. During the era of communist rule in Hungary (1944–1989), a Song Committee scoured and censored popular music for traces of subversion and ideological impurity. Hungarian folk music is a prominent part of the national identity and continues to play a major part in Hungarian music. The new government worked quickly to normalize foreign relations while turning a blind eye to a White Terror that swept through the countryside; extrajudicial killings of suspected communists and Jews lasted well into 1920. All county seats except Budapest are urban counties. [citation needed]. It carries nearly all general police duties such as criminal investigation, patrol activity, traffic policing, border control. [165] During World War II, the Hungarian Second Army was heavily depleted fighting on the banks of the Don River in December 1942 during the Battle for Stalingrad. Taking the eastern origins of the Hungarians into account, Ödön Lechner (1845–1914), the most important figure in Hungarian Art Nouveau, was initially inspired by Indian and Syrian architecture, and later by traditional Hungarian decorative designs. Hungary sent a 300-strong logistics unit to Iraq in order to help the US occupation with armed transport convoys, though public opinion opposed the country's participation in the war. Budapest, capitale de la Hongrie. Due to Hungary's accession to the Schengen Treaty, the Police and Border Guards were merged into a single national corps, with the Border Guards becoming Police Officers. We're in the midst of the Earths sixth mass extinction crisis. Some studies indicate a considerably larger number of Romani in Hungary (876,000 people – c. 9% of the population.). Contactez-nous; Hongrie Population. (2018) [1] Évolution de la population-0.26 % (2018) [2], [3] Indice de fécondité: 1,45 enfant par ♀ [4] (2018) [5] Taux de natalité: 8,9 ‰ (2018) [6], [7] Taux de mortalité: 12,8 ‰ (2018) [8], [9] Taux de mortalité infantile: 4,8 ‰ (2018) [10] By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century. The popularity of left-wing parties plummeted in the ensuing political upheaval, and in 2010, Viktor Orbán's national-conservative Fidesz was elected to a parliamentary supermajority. Hungary is part of the European single market which represents more than 508 million consumers. The capital is a significant economic hub, classified as an Alpha – world city in the study by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network and it is the second fastest-developing urban economy in Europe as GDP per capita in the city increased by 2.4 per cent and employment by 4.7 per cent compared to the previous year in 2014. By applying them to three-dimensional architectural elements, he produced a version of Art Nouveau that was specific to Hungary. Chess is also a popular and successful sport in Hungary, the Hungarian players are the 10th most powerful overall on the ranking of World Chess Federation. Balassi's poetry shows medieval influences, his poems can be divided into three sections: love poems, war poems and religious poems. Transdanubia, which stretches westward from the center of the country toward Austria, is a primarily hilly region with a terrain varied by low mountains. [172] Major industries include food processing, pharmaceuticals, motor vehicles, information technology, chemicals, metallurgy, machinery, electrical goods, and tourism (in 2014 Hungary welcomed 12.1 million international tourists). For that, we recommend visiting these two prior animations: The 20 Most Populous Megacities in 2100 and The World’s Population by Region in 2100. Population density stands at 107 inhabitants per square kilometre, which is about two times higher than the world average. Other important ones include Dunaújváros and Baja. In November 1919, rightist forces led by former Austro-Hungarian admiral Miklós Horthy entered Budapest; exhausted by the war and its aftermath, the populace accepted Horthy's leadership. [143] The government achieved a budget deficit 1.9% of the GDP in 2015. In 1968, the New Economic Mechanism (NEM) introduced free-market elements into socialist command economy. Journal de la société française de statistique (1911) Volume: 52, page 281-283; ISSN: 1962-5197; Access Full Article top Access to … The freshly unified Hungarians[52] led by Árpád (by tradition a descendant of Attila), settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. Humans are unique in their ability to alter their environment with the conscious purpose of increasing its carrying capacity. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek Oungroi (Οὔγγροι). Csárdás is the Hungarian name for the national dances, with Hungarian embroidered costumes and energetic music. [248], Hungary is a land of thermal water. [34] Primary education usually lasts for eight years. [228] The second leading cause of death is cancer with 33,274 (26.2%), which has been stagnant since the 1990s. The Habsburg Ruler and his advisors skillfully manipulated the Croatian, Serbian and Romanian peasantry, led by priests and officers firmly loyal to the Habsburgs, and induced them to rebel against the Hungarian government, though the Hungarians were supported by the vast majority of the Slovak, German and Rusyn nationalities and by all the Jews of the kingdom, as well as by a large number of Polish, Austrian and Italian volunteers. Abroad he defeated the Polish and German imperial armies of Frederick at Breslau (Wrocław). (SSOAR, 2019). Hungary joined the Partnership for Peace program in 1994 and has actively supported the IFOR and SFOR missions in Bosnia. [164] In 1848–49, Hungarian forces achieved successes against better-trained and equipped Austrian forces, despite the Austrian advantage in numbers. 27.2% of the population did not declare a religious affiliation while 16.7% declared themselves explicitly irreligious, another 1.5% atheist.[4]. The two realms were governed separately by two parliaments from two capital cities, with a common monarch and common external and military policies. Ugrós (Jumping dances) are old style dances dating back to the Middle Ages. The Mongols returned to Hungary in 1285, but the newly built stone-castle systems and new tactics (using a higher proportion of heavily armed knights) stopped them. Amid political chaos, the divided Hungarian nobility elected two kings simultaneously, John Zápolya and Ferdinand I of the Habsburg dynasty. Csárdás are new style dances developed in the 18–19th centuries. These chronicles mix history with legends, so historically they are not always authentic. Hungary's population was 9,937,628 according to the 2011 census, making it the fifth most populous country in Central and Eastern Europe and medium-sized member state of the European Union. [259] The track was completely resurfaced for the first time in early 2016, and it was announced the Grand Prix's deal was extended for a further five years, until 2026.[260]. Average high temperature in the summer is 23 to 28 °C (73 to 82 °F) and average low temperature in the winter is −3 to −7 °C (27 to 19 °F). The common tripartite division of the country into three sections—Dunántúl ("beyond the Danube", Transdanubia), Tiszántúl ("beyond the Tisza"), and Duna-Tisza köze ("between the Danube and Tisza")—is a reflection of this. Une loi de 2010 a permis la naturalisation des magyarophones de l'étranger. The general requirement for university is the Matura. [210] Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarian people in neighbouring countries and by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide. The Hungarians brought their wine-making knowledge from the East. En Allemagne, second pays d'Europe à casser vers le bas le seuil de reproduction simple de la population, cela n'eut lieu qu'en 1970-1971. [95][96] Though the revision of the Treaty quickly rose to the top of the national political agenda, the Horthy government was not willing to resort to military intervention to do so. The seminal opening of the previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989 accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc, and subsequently the Soviet Union. The Hungarian public higher education system includes universities and other higher education institutes, that provide both education curricula and related degrees up to doctoral degree and also contribute to research activities. In the Budapest downtown area almost all the buildings are about one hundred years old, with thick walls, high ceilings, and motifs on the front wall.[54][232]. [66], The most powerful and wealthiest king of the Árpád dynasty was Béla III, who disposed of the equivalent of 23 tonnes of pure silver a year. Learning of the planned defection, German troops occupied Hungary on 19 March 1944 to guarantee Horthy's compliance. The csárda is the most distinctive type of Hungarian inn, an old-style tavern offering traditional cuisine and beverages. [189] In 2014, Hungary counted 2,651 full-time equivalent researchers per million inhabitants, steadily increasing from 2,131 in 2010 and compares with 3,984 in the US or 4,380 in Germany. Population totale La définition de population englobe tous les résidents indépendamment de leur statut légal ou de leur citoyenneté, à l'exception des réfugiés qui ne sont pas établis en permanence dans leur pays d'adoption. La fécondité hongroise tenta par deux fois de se redresser, d'abord en 1968, mais d'une manière fort éphémère, puis en 1975-1978, alors qu'ailleurs en Europe occidentale, la natalité et la fécondité plongeaient durablement. Initially, the newly discovered particulate nature of genes made it difficult for biologists to understand how gradual evolution could occur. Budapest, Debrecen, Miskolc, and Szeged have tram networks. standing at 3981/2 square miles, the population was enumerated at 386,159 in the 1901 Census. By 1918, the economic situation had deteriorated (strikes in factories were organized by leftist and pacifist movements) and uprisings in the army had become commonplace. In water polo the Hungarian team is the leading medal winner by a significant margin and in swimming Hungarian men are fourth most successful overall, while the women are eighth most successful overall. On 15 March 1848, mass demonstrations in Pest and Buda enabled Hungarian reformists to push through a list of 12 demands. [73] His library, the Bibliotheca Corviniana, was Europe's greatest collection of historical chronicles, philosophic and scientific works in the 15th century, and second only in size to the Vatican Library. Much of this ability is related to human intelligence, society, and communication. [88] In October 1918, Hungary's union with Austria was dissolved. By the mid-9th century, the Balaton Principality, also known as Lower Pannonia, was established west of the Danube river as part of the Frankish March of Pannonia. It is led by the National Police Commissioner under the control of the Minister of the Interior. Though free elections continued, Horthy's personality, and those of his personally selected prime ministers, dominated the political scene. Nearly all the manifestations of folk art practiced elsewhere in Europe also flourished among the Magyar peasantry at one time or another, their ceramics and textile being the most highly developed of all. [206][207] According to the 2011 census, there were 8,314,029 (83.7%) ethnic Hungarians, 308,957 (3.1%) Romani, 131,951 (1.3%) Germans, 29,647 (0.3%) Slovaks, 26,345 (0.3%) Romanians, and 23,561 (0.2%) Croats in Hungary; 1,455,883 people (14.7% of the total population) did not declare their ethnicity. Hungary's transition from communism to democracy and capitalism (rendszerváltás, "regime change") was peaceful and prompted by economic stagnation, domestic political pressure, and changing relations with other Warsaw Pact countries. The largest village is Solymár (population: 10,123 as of 2010) There are more than 100 villages with fewer than 100 inhabitants while the smallest villages have fewer than 20 inhabitants. Following the firing on peaceful demonstrations by Soviet soldiers and secret police, and rallies throughout the country on 23 October 1956, protesters took to the streets in Budapest, initiating the 1956 Revolution. The Customs and Excise Authority remained subject to the Ministry of Finance under the National Tax and Customs Administration.[157]. Most of the Hungarian universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment. In the past 20 years Hungary has also grown into a major center for mobile technology, information security, and related hardware research. István Medgyaszay developed his own style, which differed from Lechner's, using stylised traditional motifs to create decorative designs in concrete. Since 1996, the counties and City of Budapest have been grouped into seven regions for statistical and development purposes. This is the era in which humans learned to control crops and animals. Hungarian music consists mainly of traditional Hungarian folk music and music by prominent composers such as Liszt and Bartók, considered to be among the greatest Hungarian composers. The system is partly flexible and bridges exist, graduates from a vocational school can achieve a two years program to have access to vocational higher education for instance. A remarkable upswing started as the nation concentrated its forces on modernization even though the Habsburg monarchs obstructed all important liberal laws relating to civil and political rights and economic reforms. C'est un indicateur synthétique des taux de mortalité par âge de 2018. Many people still follow the tradition, although younger people often disavow it, citing that the vow was only meant to last 150 years. It also limited parliamentary oversight, independent media, non-governmental organizations and academics, while consolidating power around the central government.[146]. Since 2017, the relations with Ukraine rapidly deteriorated over the issue of the Hungarian minority in Ukraine. [80] The Austrian-Habsburg government settled large groups of Serbs and other Slavs in the depopulated south, and settled Germans (called Danube Swabians) in various areas, but Hungarians were not allowed to settle or re-settle in the south of the Great Plain. [255], In 2015 the Assembly of the Hungarian Olympic Committee and the Assembly of Budapest decided to bid for the 2024 Summer Olympics but eventually awarded to Paris. [247], For over 150 years, a blend of forty Hungarian herbs has been used to create the liqueur Unicum. The last raid into Hungary by the Ottoman vassals Tatars from Crimea took place in 1717. During the Napoleonic Wars and afterwards, the Hungarian Diet had not convened for decades. However, plum (szilva) is the most popular flavour. This merger took place in January 2008. They have also seen success in canoeing and kayaking they are the third most successful overall. [85] Many members of the nationalities gained the coveted highest positions within the Hungarian Army, like General János Damjanich, an ethnic Serb who became a Hungarian national hero through his command of the 3rd Hungarian Army Corps or Józef Bem, who was Polish and also became a national hero in Hungary. [69] King Béla IV let Cumans and Jassic people into the country, who were fleeing the Mongols. The translation is called the Bible of Vizsoly, after the town where it was first published. Let's see why. [148] It was the second election according to the new Constitution of Hungary which went into force on 1 January 2012. L'espérance de vie à la naissance en 2018 est égale à la durée de vie moyenne d'une génération fictive qui connaîtrait tout au long de son existence les conditions de mortalité par âge de 2018. B.R. It is also the oldest surviving Uralic poem. Cette section est vide, insuffisamment détaillée ou incomplète. Démographie de la Hongrie: Pyramide des âges de la Hongrie en 2005 Dynamique; Population: 9 825 704 hab. The main varieties are: Olaszrizling, Hárslevelű, Furmint, Pinot gris or Szürkebarát, Chardonnay (whites), Kékfrankos (or Blaufrankisch in German), Kadarka, Portugieser, Zweigelt, Cabernet sauvignon, Cabernet franc and Merlot. Over 100,000 people attended the Budapest ceremony without any significant government interference, and many speakers openly called for Soviet troops to leave the country. Because borders were briefly opened, nearly a quarter of a million people fled the country by the time the revolution was suppressed.[124]. The intercensal increase yielded a fairly high growth rate of 5.9 per cent per annum, with a large portion due undoubtedly to the extra population of the New Terri tories since the last census in 1891. They gradually left behind the nomadic, hunter-gatherer lifestyle and began to settle in villages and other permanent settlements. The court system for civil and criminal jurisdiction consists of local courts (járásbíróság), regional appellate courts (ítélőtábla), and the supreme court (Kúria). Although usually danced by young men, it can be also danced by older men. Hungary's highest courts are located in Budapest. Although the MSzMP began Round Table Talks with various opposition groups in March 1989, the reburial of Imre Nagy as a revolutionary martyr that June is widely considered the symbolic end of communism in Hungary. Hungarian National Cyber Security Center was re-organized in 2016 in order to become more efficient through cyber security. [247] In Russia, customers included Peter the Great and Empress Elizabeth, while Catherine the Great actually established a Russian garrison in the town of Tokaj with the aim of assuring regular wine deliveries to St. Figure 1. With the conquest of Buda by the Turks in 1541, Hungary was divided into three parts and remained so until the end of the 17th century. Onogur was the collective name for the tribes who later joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars. In the past the population grew slowly: it took nearly seven centuries for the population to double from 0.25 billion (in the early 9th century) to 0.5 billion in the middle of the 16th century. [239], Other dishes are chicken paprikash, foie gras made of goose liver, pörkölt stew, vadas, (game stew with vegetable gravy and dumplings), trout with almonds and salty and sweet dumplings, like túrós csusza, (dumplings with fresh quark cheese and thick sour cream). [227], In common with other developed countries, cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of mortality, accounting for 49.4% (62,979) of all deaths in 2013. Nagy promised market liberalization and political openness, while Rákosi opposed both vigorously. The most powerful ruler of the Hunnic Empire was Attila the Hun (434–453) who later became a central figure in Hungarian mythology. [33][34] Hungary's rich cultural history includes significant contributions to the arts, music, literature, sports, science and technology. Budapest, the capital, serves as an important hub for the Hungarian railway system (MÁV). Under governor and president Lajos Kossuth and the first Prime Minister, Lajos Batthyány, the House of Habsburg was dethroned. In 2009 Hungary, due to strong economic difficulties, had to request the help of the IMF for about €9 billion. HONGRIE - Hungary - Population et langues - tourist and cultural sites, information, address Petit Futé Founded in 1826, Herend Porcelain is one of the world's largest ceramic factories, specializing in luxury hand painted and gilded porcelain. There are about 120,000 Jews in Hungary today.[216][217]. The country has more than $100 billion export in 2015 with high, $9.003 billion trade surplus, of which 79% went to the EU and 21% was extra-EU trade. Lake Balaton and Lake Hévíz, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest thermal lake in the world, respectively, are in Transdanubia as well. A népesség nyelvismeret és nemek szerint (population by spoken language), 1.1.6.1 A népesség anyanyelv, nemzetiség és nemek szerint (population by mother tongue and ethnicity), 2.1.7.1 A népesség vallás, felekezet, és fontosabb demográfiai ismérvek szerint (population by religion, denomination and main demographical indicators) (Hungarian)", Studies in medieval and renaissance history, "Population by type of settlement – annually", "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019", "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey", "Eurostat – Population on 1 January 2015", "Uralic (Finno-Ugrian) languages, Classification of the Uralic (Finno-Ugrian) languages, with present numbers of speakers and areas of distribution (last updated 24 September 2015)", "Austria-Hungary, HISTORICAL EMPIRE, EUROPE", "Text of the Treaty, Treaty of Peace Between The Allied and Associated Powers and Hungary And Protocol and Declaration, Signed at Trianon June 4, 1920", http://kapos.hu/hirek/kis_szines/2018-06-16/megerkezett_az_idei_balaton_sound_himnusza.html, "Hungarian Who Led '56 Revolt Is Buried as a Hero", "List of OECD Member countries – Ratification of the Convention on the OECD", "Compulsory Education in Europe 2013/2014", "Hungary's Nobel Prize Winners, 13 Hungarian win Nobel Prize yet", "Population per Gold Medal. As a consequence, after the Mongols retreated, King Béla ordered the construction of hundreds of stone castles and fortifications, to defend against a possible second Mongol invasion. In 1241–1242, the kingdom received a major blow with the Mongol (Tatar) invasion. This campaign was only partially successful, however, and the (mainly Reformed) Hungarian nobility were able to secure freedom of worship for Christians. (A) All the genotyped individuals were residents of Kuwait, in the Arabian Peninsula. Well-known companies include the Fortune Global 500 firm MOL Group, the OTP Bank, Gedeon Richter Plc., Magyar Telekom, CIG Pannonia, FHB Bank, Zwack Unicum and more. From the men's intricate bootslapping dances to the ancient women's circle dances, Csárdás demonstrates the infectious exuberance of the Hungarian folk dancing still celebrated in the villages. The older classics of Hungarian literature and Hungarian poetry have remained almost totally unknown outside Hungary. (IX. Hungary has made many contributions to the fields of folk, popular and classical music. The territory of present Hungary was for centuries inhabited by a succession of peoples, including Celts, Romans, Germanic tribes, Huns, West Slavs and the Avars. The Antall government's austerity measures proved unpopular, and the Communist Party's legal and political heir, the Socialist Party, won the subsequent 1994 elections. The role of the counties are basically administrative and focus on strategic development, while preschools, public water utilities, garbage disposal, elderly care and rescue services are administered by the municipalities. Women participate in the dance by standing in lines to the side, and singing or shouting verses while the men dance. Those of Kalotaszeg in Transylvania are charming products of Oriental design, sewn chiefly in a single color – red, blue, or black. De 1960 à 1992, à part ces deux sursauts, la fécondité oscilla entre 1,70 et 2,02. Au 1er janvier 2017, la Hongrie comptait une population de 9 797 561 habitants[13].

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